Patrimônio Natural e Cultural da Mongólia/Natur- und Kulturerbe der Mongolei/Natural and cultural heritage of Mongolia

A Mongólia é um país localizado na Ásia oriental, sem acesso à costa marítima e limita-se com a Rússia e China. A capital da Mongólia é Ulan Bator e as outras principais cidades são: Darhan, Erdenet e Choybalsan.

Quando tratamos sobre a Mongólia vem à mente a cultura nômade e o grande Deserto de Gobi localizado a sudeste do país, as montanhas de Altai no Oeste.  A Mongólia é formada na maior parte do seu território por um planalto. Sua população é estimada em 3.278.290 pessoas em 2020, de acordo com dados da ONU. A população da Mongólia é equivalente a 0,04% da população mundial total. A densidade populacional na Mongólia é de 2 habitantes por km2 . A idade média na Mongólia é 28,2 anos, ou seja, a maioria de sua população é jovem.

A maioria de nós, ocidentais, não lemos e nem assistimos na mídia internacional muitas notícias sobre a Mongólia. A história dessa nação está diretamente relacionada com o Império Mongol, que no século XIII dominou grande parte da Ásia sob o comando de Gengis Khan. Com o fim do império, a partir do século XIV, os mongóis voltaram a se dividir em tribos.

Esse país possui cinco bens inscritos na Lista do Patrimônio Mundial da Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura UNESCO, sendo três bens culturais e dois bens naturais.

Você deve estar se perguntando por que escrevemos este post sobre a Mongólia. É muito simples, por causa da pandemia, tivemos que adiar duas vezes uma viagem planejada e agendada à Mongólia para viajar de lá para a Europa com a Ferrovia Transiberiana e, finalmente, para visitar Moscou e São Petersburgo. Vamos ver e esperar agora se isso funcionará na 3ª tentativa em 2022.

Os bens culturais são os seguintes, a data entre parênteses indica quando foi inscrito na lista da UNESCO:

– A Grande Montanha Burkhan Khaldun Mountain e sua paisagem sagrada circundante (2015)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: https://mongolia-guide.com/place/burkhan-khaldun

– Paisagem Cultural do Vale Orkhon (2004)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: http://www.travelomongolia.com/places-to-visit/the-orkhon-valley-cultural-landscape-unesco-world-heritage-site/#.YL_I0PlKiUk

– Complexos petroglíficos (representações gravadas por seres humanos em rochas, conhecido popularmente como arte rupestre) do Altai da Mongólia (2011)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.amicusmongolia.com/western-mongolia/baga-oigariin-rock-petroglyph

Os bens naturais são os seguintes:

– Paisagens de Dauria (2017)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://naturalworldheritagesites.org/sites/landscapes-of-dauria/

–  Bacia de Uvs Nuur (2003)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://travel-to-mongolia.com/uvs-lake-uvs-nuur-basin/

Além desses locais há ainda os bens que se encontram numa lista provisória da UNESCO. São os seguintes:

– Paisagens do deserto do Grande Gobi da Mongólia (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.discovermongolia.mn/about-mongolia/destinations/gobi-desert-mongolia

– Sítios fósseis de dinossauros do Cretáceo no Gobi mongol (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://origins.case.edu/mongolia/

– Estepes da Mongólia Oriental (2014)

Foto/Source/Quelle: https://www.toursmongolia.com/about-mongolia/mongolian-geography/steppe

– Mosteiro de Amarbayasgalant e sua paisagem cultural sagrada circundante (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: http://www.mongoliatours.com/experiences/visit-amarbayasgalant-monastery

– Mosteiro Baldan Bereeven e seus arredores sagrados (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: http://www.mongoliatours.com/articles/Baldan-Bereeven-Monastery

– Montanha Sagrada Binder Mountain e seus locais de patrimônio cultural associado (2014)

– Locais funerários da elite Xiongnu (2014)

– Sítio arqueológico de Khuduu Aral e paisagem cultural circundante (2014)

– Monumentos de Pedra de Cervos, o Coração da Cultura da Idade do Bronze (2014)

– Complexos petroglíficos em Gobi da Mongólia (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.toursmongolia.com/mongolia_travel_news/mystery-deer-stones-of-mongolia

– Terras Altas da Mongol Altai (2014)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: https://www.westernaltai.com/altai-mountains-mongolia/

– Montanhas Sagradas da Mongólia (2015)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: : https://sacredland.org/mongolias-ten-sacred-mountains/

Quer conhecer mais sobre a Mongólia? Clique aqui   e aqui

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Natur- und Kulturerbe der Mongolei

Die Mongolei ist ein Land in Ostasien ohne Zugang zu Meeresküsten und grenzt an Russland und China. Die Hauptstadt der Mongolei ist Ulan Bator und die weiteren wichtigen Städte sind: Darhan, Erdenet und Choybalsan.

Wenn wir über die Mongolei sprechen, dann kommen einem sofort die Nomadenkultur und die große Wüste Gobi im Südosten des Landes und das Altai-Gebirge im Westen in den Sinn. Die Mongolei wird in den meisten Regionen durch ein Plateau geformt.

Die Bevölkerung der Mongolei wird nach UN-Angaben auf 3.278.290 Menschen im Jahr 2020 geschätzt, die Bevölkerung der Mongolei entspricht 0,04 % der gesamten Weltbevölkerung. Die Bevölkerungsdichte in der Mongolei beträgt 2 Einwohner pro km2. Das Durchschnittsalter in der Mongolei beträgt 28,2 Jahre, was bedeutet, dass die Mehrheit der Bevölkerung jung ist.

Die meisten von uns Westlern lesen oder sehen nicht viele Nachrichten über die Mongolei in den internationalen Medien. Die Geschichte dieser Nation ist direkt mit dem Mongolenreich verbunden, das im 13. Jahrhundert unter Dschingis Khan einen Großteil Asiens beherrschte. Mit dem Ende dieses Reiches ab dem 14. Jahrhundert wurden die Mongolen dann wieder in Stämme aufgeteilt.

Sie fragen sich nun vielleicht, warum wir über die Mongolei diesen Blogpost verfasst haben. Es ist ganz einfach, wegen der Pandmie mussten wir nun schon zweimal eine geplante und gebuchte Reise in die Mongolei verschieben, um dann von dort aus mit der Transsibirischen Eisenbahn nach Europa zu reisen um abschlie noch Moskau und Sankt Petersburg zu besuchen. Mal sehen und hoffen nun, ob dies nun im 3. Anlauf 2022 funktionieren könnte.

Dieses Land hat fünf Einträge in der UNESCO-Welterbeliste der Organisation der Vereinten Nationen für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur, drei hiervon sind Kulturgüter und zwei Naturgüter.

Die Kulturgüter sind wie folgt, das Datum in Klammern gibt an, wann es in die UNESCO-Liste aufgenommen wurde :

– Der Große Burkhan Khaldun Berg und seine umgebende heilige Landschaft (2015)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: https://mongolia-guide.com/place/burkhan-khaldun

– Kulturlandschaft des Orkhon-Tals (2004)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: http://www.travelomongolia.com/places-to-visit/the-orkhon-valley-cultural-landscape-unesco-world-heritage-site/#.YL_I0PlKiUk

Petroglyphenkomplexe (von Menschen auf Felsen eingravierte Darstellungen, im Volksmund als Felszeichnungen bekannt) des Altai der Mongolei (2011)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.amicusmongolia.com/western-mongolia/baga-oigariin-rock-petroglyph

Die Kulturwerte hinsichtlich der Natur sind:

– Landschaften von Dauria (2017)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://naturalworldheritagesites.org/sites/landscapes-of-dauria/

Uvs Nuur Becken (2003)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://travel-to-mongolia.com/uvs-lake-uvs-nuur-basin/

Neben diesen Stätten gibt es auch noch Punkte, die auf einer vorläufigen UNESCO-Liste stehen:

– Wüstenlandschaften der Großen Gobi der Mongolei (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.discovermongolia.mn/about-mongolia/destinations/gobi-desert-mongolia

– Fossilienfundstellen von Dinosauriern aus der Kreidezeit in der mongolischen Gobi (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://origins.case.edu/mongolia/

– Ostmongolische Steppe (2014)

Foto/Source/Quelle: https://www.toursmongolia.com/about-mongolia/mongolian-geography/steppe

– Kloster Amarbayasgalant und seine umgebende heilige Kulturlandschaft (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: http://www.mongoliatours.com/experiences/visit-amarbayasgalant-monastery

– Kloster Baldan Bereeven und seine heilige Umgebung (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: http://www.mongoliatours.com/articles/Baldan-Bereeven-Monastery

– Heiliger Berg Binder und die dazugehörigen Kulturerbestätten (2014)

– Begräbnisstätten der Elite Xiongnu (2014)

– Ausgrabungsstätte Khuduu Aral und umliegende Kulturlandschaft (2014)

– Denkmäler aus Pedra de Cervos (Hirschstein), das Herz der bronzezeitlichen Kultur (2014)

– Petroglyphenkomplexe in Gobi in der Mongolei (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.toursmongolia.com/mongolia_travel_news/mystery-deer-stones-of-mongolia

– Hochland des mongolischen Altai (2014)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: https://www.westernaltai.com/altai-mountains-mongolia/

– Heilige Berge der Mongolei (2015)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: : https://sacredland.org/mongolias-ten-sacred-mountains/

Möchten Sie mehr über die Mongolei erfahren? Klicken Sie hier  und hier

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Natural and cultural heritage of Mongolia

Mongolia is a country in East Asia with no access to sea coasts and borders with Russia and China. The capital of Mongolia is Ulan Bator and the other important cities are: Darhan, Erdenet and Choybalsan.

When we talk about Mongolia, the nomadic culture and the great Gobi Desert in the southeast of the country and the Altai Mountains in the west immediately come to mind. Mongolia is formed by a plateau in most regions.

According to UN data the population of Mongolia is estimated at 3,278,290 people in 2020, the population of Mongolia corresponds to 0.04% of the total world population. The population density in Mongolia is 2 people per km2. The median age in Mongolia is 28.2 years, which means that the majority of the population is young.

Most of us Westerners do not read or see much news about Mongolia in the international media. The history of this nation is directly linked to the Mongol Empire, which ruled much of Asia under Genghis Khan in the 13th century. With the end of this empire from the 14th century the Mongols were then again divided into tribes.

You might be wondering why we wrote this blog post about Mongolia. It’s very simple, because of the pandemic we have had to postpone a planned and booked trip to Mongolia twice in order to travel from there to Europe with the Trans-Siberian Railway and finally to visit Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Let’s see and hope now whether this could work in the 3rd attempt in 2022.

This country has five entries on the UNESCO World Heritage List of the United Nations Education, Science and Culture, three of which are cultural assets and two are natural assets.

The cultural assets are as follows, the date in brackets indicates when it was added to the UNESCO list :

– The Great Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and its surrounding sacred landscape (2015)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: https://mongolia-guide.com/place/burkhan-khaldun

– Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape (2004)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: http://www.travelomongolia.com/places-to-visit/the-orkhon-valley-cultural-landscape-unesco-world-heritage-site/#.YL_I0PlKiUk

– Petroglyph complexes (depictions engraved by people on rocks, popularly known as rock carvings) of the Altai of Mongolia (2011)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.amicusmongolia.com/western-mongolia/baga-oigariin-rock-petroglyph

The cultural values ​​in terms of nature are:

– Landscapes of Dauria (2017)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://naturalworldheritagesites.org/sites/landscapes-of-dauria/

– Uvs Nuur Basin (2003)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://travel-to-mongolia.com/uvs-lake-uvs-nuur-basin/

In addition to these sites, there are also items that are on a provisional UNESCO list:

– Desert landscapes of the Great Gobi of Mongolia (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.discovermongolia.mn/about-mongolia/destinations/gobi-desert-mongolia

– Cretaceous dinosaur fossil sites in the Mongolian Gobi (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://origins.case.edu/mongolia/

– East Mongolian steppe (2014)

Foto/Source/Quelle: https://www.toursmongolia.com/about-mongolia/mongolian-geography/steppe

Amarbayasgalant Monastery and its surrounding sacred cultural landscape (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: http://www.mongoliatours.com/experiences/visit-amarbayasgalant-monastery

Baldan Bereeven Monastery and its sacred environment (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: http://www.mongoliatours.com/articles/Baldan-Bereeven-Monastery

– Sacred mountain Binder and the associated cultural heritage sites (2014)

– Burial places of the Xiongnu elite (2014)

Khuduu Aral archaeological site and surrounding cultural landscape (2014)

– Monuments from Pedra de Cervos (Deer Stone), the heart of Bronze Age culture (2014)

– Petroglyph complexes in Gobi in Mongolia (2014)

Fonte/Source/Quelle: https://www.toursmongolia.com/mongolia_travel_news/mystery-deer-stones-of-mongolia

– Mongolian Altai highlands (2014)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: https://www.westernaltai.com/altai-mountains-mongolia/

– Sacred Mountains of Mongolia (2015)

Fonte/Quelle/Source: : https://sacredland.org/mongolias-ten-sacred-mountains/

Would you like to learn more about Mongolia? Click here

and here

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